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History of The Sultanate of Ternate
The sultanate of Ternate or also known as the Kingdom of Gapi is one of the 4 Islamic kingdoms in the Maluku Islands and is one of the oldest Islamic kingdoms in the archipelago. It was founded by Baab Mashur Malamo in 1257. The Sultanate of Ternate had an important role in the eastern region of the archipelago between the 13th century and the 17th century. The Ternate Sultanate enjoyed glory in the half of the 16th century thanks to its spice trade and military strength. In its heyday its power stretched to include the Moluccas, northern, eastern and central Sulawesi, the southern part of the Philippine archipelago as far as the Marshall Islands in the Pacific. Gapi Island (now Ternate) began to bustle in the early 13th century. Early Ternate residents were residents of the exodus from Halmahera. Initially in Ternate there were 4 villages, each headed by a momole (head of the clan). It was they who first made contact with merchants who came from all directions looking for spices. The population of Ternate is increasingly heterogeneous with the settlements of Arab, Javanese, Malay and Chinese traders. Because increasingly busy trading activities were added to threats that often came from pirates, Momole Guna Tobona leaders held deliberations to form a stronger organization and appoint a single leader as king. Year 1257 Momole Ciko, the leader of Sampalu was elected and appointed as the first kolano (king) with the title Baab Mashur Malamo (1257-1272). The Kingdom of Gapi is centered in the village of Ternate, which in later developments is getting bigger and more crowded so that the population is also referred to as Gam Lamo or the big village (later people call Gam Lamo with Gamalama). The greater and popularity of Ternate City, so that people would rather say Ternate kingdom than Gapi kingdom. Under the leadership of several generations of the next ruler, Ternate developed from an empire which only served a small island to become the most influential and largest kingdom in eastern Indonesia, especially Maluku.
48th Sultan of Ternate H. Mudaffar Sjah
The Crown of Sultan Ternate
Inside Museum of The Palace of Ternate Sultanate
Museum Kedaton Kesultanan Ternate
IIn the early days, Ternate tribes led by the momole. After forming a kingdom, a leadership position was held by a king called Kolano. Starting in the mid-15th century, Islam was totally adopted by the kingdom and the application of Islamic law was put in place. Sultan Zainal Abidin left the Kolano title and replaced it with the title of Sultan. The scholars became important figures in the kingdom. After the sultan as the supreme leader, there was the position of jogugu (prime minister) and fala raha as advisers. Fala raha or four houses are four noble clans which became the backbone of the sultanate as a representation of the momole in the past, each headed by a kimalaha. They are Marsaoly, Tomagola, Tomaito and Tamadi. The sultanate's top officials generally came from these clans. If a sultan does not have an heir then his successor is chosen from one of the clans. Furthermore there are other positions Bobato Nyagimoi se Tufkange (Council 18), Sabua Raha, Kapita Lau, Salahakan, Sangaji, etc. In addition to Ternate, in Maluku there are also at least 3 other kingdoms which have influences namely the Sultanate of Tidore, the Sultanate of Jailolo, and the Sultanate of Bacan. These kingdoms were rivals of Ternate in fighting over hegemony in Maluku. Thanks to the spice trade Ternate enjoyed impressive economic growth, and to strengthen its hegemony in Maluku, Ternate began to expand. This gave rise to antipathy and increased jealousy of other kingdoms in Maluku who saw Ternate as a common enemy and triggered a war. In order to stop the protracted conflict, the 7th Sultan of Ternate, Kolano Cili Aiya or also called Kolano Sida Arif Malamo (1322-1331) invited other Maluku kings to reconcile and deliberate to form an alliance. This alliance became known as The Guild of Moti or Moti Verbond. The important point of this meeting in addition to the establishment of an alliance is the uniformity of the form of royal institutions in Maluku. Because this meeting was attended by 4 of Maluku's strongest Kings, it was also called the fellowship of Moloku Kie Raha (Four Mountains of Maluku). Museum of The Palace of Ternate Sultanate
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